Fluorescein angiography is used to identify abnormal blood vessels in the retina and is most commonly used in age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinal blood vessel occlusion and swelling of the optic disc. It is an important imaging technique for the assessment of laser photocoagulation treatment.
Indocyanine green angiography
Indocyanine green angiography allows visualization of leaky blood vessels obscured by hemorrhage. It is also used as a superior imaging technique for investigation of the deeper choroidal circulation.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
Optical Coherence Tomography uses light waves to detect and create a cross-sectional image of retinal structures. This non-invasive technique helps manage wet age-related macular degeneration. It also detects fluid underneath the retina and structural changes of the macula (swelling, holes, premacular fibrosis).
The retina converts a visual image into electrical impulses that are transmitted to the brain through the optic nerve for visual processing. Assessment of the electrical circuitry from the retina to the brain can be determined by techniques such as electroretinography, electro-oculography and visual evoked response testing.
Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph (HRT)
The Heidelberg retinal tomography is a safe imaging technique used for early diagnosis and management of glaucoma. A laser ophthalmoscope scans and produces a three-dimensional image of the retina, which allows detection of structural changes.